# Domain

needs a domain to encode the circuit on (for each point we can encode a row/constraint/gate). We choose a domain such that it is a multiplicative subgroup of the scalar field of our curve.

Furthermore, as FFT (used for interpolation, see the section on FFTs) works best in domains of size for some , we choose to be a subgroup of order .

Since the pasta curves both have scalar fields of prime orders and , their multiplicative subgroup is of order and respectively (without the zero element). The pasta curves were generated specifically so that both and are multiples of .

We say that they have 2-adicity of 32.

Looking at the definition of one of the pasta fields in Rust you can see that it is defined specifically for a trait related to FFTs:

#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
impl FftParameters for FqParameters {
type BigInt = BigInteger;

#[rustfmt::skip]
0x218077428c9942de, 0xcc49578921b60494, 0xac2e5d27b2efbee2, 0xb79fa897f2db056
]);
}

The 2-adicity of 32 means that there’s a multiplicative subgroup of size that exists in the field. The code above also defines a generator for it, such that and for (so it’s a primitive -th root of unity).

[Lagrange’s theorem](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lagrange%27s_theorem_(group_theory)) tells us that if we have a group of order , then we’ll have subgroups with orders dividing . So in our case, we have subgroups with all the powers of 2, up to the 32-th power of 2.

To find any of these groups, it is pretty straight forward as well. Notice that:

• let , then and so generates a subgroup of order 31
• let , then and so generates a subgroup of order 30
• and so on…

In arkworks you can see how this is implemented:

#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
let size = n.next_power_of_two() as u64;
let log_size_of_group = ark_std::log2(usize::try_from(size).expect("too large"));
}